Book

A Three-Dimensional Stratificational Model of Language and its Functioning: Towards a General Theory of Linguistic Models A Three-Dimensional Stratificational Model of Language and its Functioning: Towards a General Theory of Linguistic Models

Shalyapina Zoya

A Three-Dimensional Stratificational Model of Language and its Functioning: Towards a General Theory of Linguistic Models

Institut vostokovedeniya RAN, Vostochnaya literatura

Moskva, 2007, 480 pages

ISBN: 978-5-02-018528-9

The book presents a new conception of natural language and its functioning. Linguistic competence is viewed as a 3-dimensional linguistic space formed by the axes of denomination, decomposition, and generalization. Traditional linguistic concepts and levels are analyzed as to their position with respect to these axes, which in some cases results in new insights. In particular, the interrelation between generalization and decomposition allows for differentiation of relation-based and entity￾based approaches to linguistic syntagmatics. Special attention is given to the entity-based approach, with the concepts of structural valency and contextual valency inheritance as its focus. Linguistic performance is envisioned as traversing the space of linguistic competence by one or other route, which accounts for fundamental variability of each of performance modes, illustrated for analysis, generation and translation.

Contents

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Chapter 1. General principles for constructing a multidimensional
stratificational linguistic framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

§ 1. Linguistic competence and linguistic performance in linguistic modelling . . . . 9
§ 2. From a linear system of linguistic levels to a multidimensional one . . . . . . . . . 15

Chapter 2. The denotation axis in a model of linguistic competence . . . . . . 24

§ 1. Linguistic sign and the relation of denotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
§ 2. Three levels of the denotation axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
§ 2.1. The plane of linguistic values, or linguistic signs proper, as a separate
level of the denotation axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
§ 2.2. The principle of asymmetrical dualism from the viewpoint of the ternary
arrangement of the denotation axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
§ 2.3. Three planes of the denotation axis and the computational linguistics . . . . 39

Chapter 3. The composition/decomposition axis in a model of linguistic
competence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

§ 1. The internal composition of a tier of linguistic description and the interrelation
of tiers within the composition/decomposition axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
§ 1.1. Minimal, maximal, and intermediate units within a linguistic tier . . . . . . 46
§ 1.2. The dualilty of inter-tier boundaries and the notion of an inter-tier
correspondence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
§ 1.3. Paradigmatic multi-valuedness of inter-tier correspondences . . . . . . . . . . 51
§ 1.4. Syntagmatic multi-valuednes of inter-tier correspondences . . . . . . . . . . . 54
§ 2. General principles of delimiting adjacent tiers of linguistic description
58
§ 2.1. A recursive definition of the range of a tier, based on the principle of the
tier’s homogeneity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
§ 2.2. Establishing a tier's boundary units, based on the principle of
representability of expression segments within the tier in question . . . . . . . . 62
§ 3. Tiers of composition/decomposition within different planes of the denotation
axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
§ 3.1. The plane of expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
§ 3.2. The plane of linguistic values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
§ 3.2.1. The structure of non-elementary units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
§ 3.2.2. The basic tiers of linguistic value units: morphology, syntax,
supra-syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
§ 3.2.3. Sub-tiers of linguistic value units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
§ 3.3. The plane of content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
§ 3.4. Correspondences between tiers belonging to different planes.
Inter-plane tiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Chapter 4. The generalization/specification axis in a model of linguistic
competence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
91

§ 1. The basic mechanisms of linguistic generalization. The opposition of centre and
periphery and the related types of linguistic redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
§ 2. Generalization and denotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
§ 2.1. In-plane generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
§ 2.2. Inter-plane generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
§ 2.3. Generalization based on both in-plane and inter-plane factors . . . . . . . . . . 115
§ 3. Generalization and composition/decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
§ 3.1. Two ways of generalizing linguistic units based on their relationship with
the composition/decomposition axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
123
§ 3.2. The relation-based approach to linguistic description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
§ 3.3. The entity-based approach to linguistic description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

Chapter 5. Entity-based linguistic description: basic concepts
and general principles of arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

§ 1. Means and mechanisms of representing syntagmatics in an entity-based
linguistic description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
§ 1.1. The notion of co-occurrence valency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
§ 1.2. Co-occurrence valencies in different planes and tiers of the natural
language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
§ 1.3. Realization of co-occurrence valencies in the natural language syntax . . 162
§ 1.3.1. Direct realization of co-occurrence valencies by syntactic
dependencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
§ 1.3.1.1. Direct realization variants for argument-type co-occurrence
valencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
§ 1.3.1.2. Direct realization variants for co-occurrence valencies of
non-argument types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
§ 1.3.2. Indirect realization of co-occurrence valencies by means of
contextual valency inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
§ 1.3.3. Contextual valency inheritance relations and their participants . . 180
§ 1.3.3.1. Types of contextual valency heirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
§ 1.3.3.1.1. CV-heirs belonging to autosemantic parts of speech . . . 181
§ 1.3.3.1.2. Prepositional CV-heirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
§ 1.3.3.1.3. CV-heirs belonging to other functional word classes . . . 188
§ 1.3.3.2. Relationships between the CV-source and the CV-heir in
the dependency structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
§ 1.3.3.2.1. CV-inheritance in constructions with co-ordination . . . . 192
§ 1.3.3.2.2. CV-inheritance in constructions with subordination . . . 193
§ 1.3.3.2.3. Indirect relations between the CV-source and the CV￾heir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
§ 1.3.3.3. Correspondences between the “donor” valencies of the
CV-source and their “representatives” in the CV-heir’s
valency frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
§ 1.3.3.3.1. The number of valencies participating
in a CV-correspondence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
§ 1.3.3.3.2. Constraints on valencies participating
in a CV-correspondence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
§ 1.3.3.4. CV-heir’s valencies as representatives of the CV-source’s
valencies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
§ 1.3.3.4.1. Argument-type valencies as CV-representatives. . . . . . . 212
§ 1.3.3.4.2. Counter-argument valencies as CV-representatives . . . . 217
§ 1.3.3.4.3. Specification valencies in CV-correspondences . . . . . . . 218
§ 1.3.3.5. Properties of a CV-representative as a result of its inheriting
those of the “donor” valency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
§ 1.3.3.5.1. Incorporating CV-inheritance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
§ 1.3.3.5.1.1. Valency semantics in CV-inheritance of the
incorporating type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
§ 1.3.3.5.1.2. Formal valency characteristics in CV-inheritance
of the incorporating type .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
§ 1.3.3.5.2. Incremental CV-inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
§ 2. Linguistic paradigmatics in an entity-based linguistic description . . . . . . . . . 232
§ 2.1. Syntactic co-occurrence of linguistic entities as a basis for their
paradigmatic generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
§ 2.2. Inheritance relations as a means of paradigmatic arrangement of
linguistic knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
§ 3. Some possibilities of computational simulation of natural language using
the entity-based approach to its description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

Chapter 6. The three-dimensional space of linguistic competence and linguistic
performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

§ 1. Conjugation of the axes of denotation, composition/decomposition and
generalization/specification in an integrated linguistic space. . . . . . . . . . . 251
§ 1.1. The overall layout of the three-dimensional linguistic space . . . . . . . . . 251
§ 1.2. The planes of denotation as in their mapping against each other along
the axes of composition/decomposition and generalization/specification 254
§ 1.3. Other factors complicating the structure of the space of linguistic
competence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
§ 1.3.1. Asymmetry of travelling along the denotation axis . . . . . . . . . . . 261
§ 1.3.2. Interplane linguistic redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
§ 2. Linguistic performance and its variability with respect to the space of
linguistic competence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
§ 2.1. Linguistic performance from the viewpoint of the denotation axis . . . . . 270
§ 2.1.1. Types of linguistic performance based on the plane of
expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
§ 2.1.1.1. Analysis «via expression» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
§ 2.1.1.2. Generation «via expression» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
§ 2.1.2. Types of linguistic performance based on the plane of content . . . 275
§ 2.1.2.1. Analysis «via content» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
§ 2.1.2.2. Generation «via content» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
§ 2.1.3. Types of linguistic performance based on the plane of linguistic
values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
§ 2.1.3.1. Analysis «via linguistic values» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
§ 2.1.3.2. Generation «via linguistic values» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
§ 2.2. Linguistic performance from the viewpoint of the composition/
decomposition axis. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
296
§ 2.2.1. The direction of travelling along the composition/decomposition
axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
297
§ 2.2.1.1. «Part-whole» relations in the procedures of analysis . . . . . . 297
§ 2.2.1.2. «Part-whole» relations in the procedures of generation. . . . . 301
§ 2.2.1.3. Partial similarity of analysis and generation in their
orientation as to the composition/decomposition axis. . . . . . 304
§ 2.2.2. Possibilities of linguistic defaults as regards the composition /
decomposition axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
§ 2.2.2.1. Inter-tier defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
§ 2.2.2.2. Intra-structural defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
§ 2.2.3. The order of going over elements and relations in the structure
of non-elementary linguistic units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
§ 2.3. Linguistic performance from the viewpoint of the generalization /
specification axis. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
318
§ 2.3.1. The direction of travelling along the generalization/specification
axis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
318
§ 2.3.2. Consideration of linguistic constraints due to generalization based
on different factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
§ 2.3.3. Possibilities of linguistic defaults as regards the generalization /
specification axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
§ 3. Variability of the paths for accomplishing linguistic performance and the
problems of its adequacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

Chapter 7. Human translation activity and its simulation with regard to the
three-dimensional arrangement of linguistic space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

§ 1. The function of linguistic denotation in a model of human translation
activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
§ 1.1. The «direct» and «two-partite» models of translation . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 329
§ 1.2. The «three-partite» model of translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
§ 1.3. An overall model of human linguistic activity as an extension of the
basic «three-partite» translation model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
§ 1.3.1. Processing the input and output texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
§ 1.3.2. Cross-linguistic transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
§ 1.3.3. Evalutation of the adequacy of the translation text . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
§ 1.3.4. Implementation of the overall model of human translation activity
in machine translation systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
§ 1.3.5. Units of automatic translation as regard the axis of denotation . . . 347
§ 2. The function of syntagmatic composition/decomposition in the model of
human translation activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
§ 2.1. Operations of segmentation and aggregation at separate phases of text
processing in translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
§ 2.2. The minimal units of translation and the problems of their description
within its formal model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
§ 2.3. The problems of defining the maximal units of translation within its
formal model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
§ 3. The function of linguistic generalization/specification in the model of human
translation activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
§ 3.1. Generalization in linguistic descriptions used in simulating translation . 375
§ 3.2. LInguistic generalization as an aspect of cross-linguistic transfer . . . . . . 379

Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
The list of abbreviations abd notation conventions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Example sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Subject index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407

RUS